Smart Diagnosing System Design To Accelerating Early Detection Of Postpartum Blues

Main Article Content

Intan Maharani Sulistyawati Batubara
Mellia Silvy Irdianty
Dias Aziz Pramudita


Background: Untreated mothers with postpartum blues are at greater risk of severe mental health disorders. At the same time, early detection tools are manually provided and paper-based, and they cannot offer accessible access to center-compiled data despite their lack of priority in mental health services.

Methods: Using a mixed-methods study design, the researcher used semi-structured interviews, while the quantitative approach was conducted using demographic questionnaires and a survey resulting from the interviews. A total of 16 participants were chosen for the qualitative study, and 60 respondents participated in the quantitative study. The sample for the study was screened by using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) within the area of Sibela Healthcare Center in Surakarta. Data collection used instrument tests and observation sheets and was analyzed by the Chi-Square statistical test.

Results: Quantitative data analyses identified a relationship between age and the incidence of postpartum blues in mothers (p-value of 0.004; OR 0.053). This study showed that mothers aged < 21 and > 35 years old have a 0.067 times higher development of postpartum blues than mothers aged 21-35.

Conclusion: Both qualitative and quantitative data suggest that postpartum mothers need support from husbands in overcoming the blues. Mothers and husbands need a comprehensive digital mobile phone service that involves professional health workers, health service providers, and referral systems.

Article Details

How to Cite
Batubara, I. M. S., Irdianty, M. S., & Pramudita, D. A. (2022). Smart Diagnosing System Design To Accelerating Early Detection Of Postpartum Blues. (JKG) Jurnal Keperawatan Global, 108–124.


Admon, L. K., Dalton, V. K., Kolenic, G. E., Ettner, S. L., Tilea, A., Haffajee, R. L., … Zivin, K. (2021). Trends in Suicidality 1 Year before and after Birth among Commercially Insured Childbearing Individuals in the United States, 2006-2017. JAMA Psychiatry, 78(2), 171–176.

Ambarwati, Eny Ratna; Wulandari, D. (2009). Asuhan Kebidanan Nifas. Yogyakarta: Mitra Cendikia Press.

Asadi, M., Noroozi, M., & Alavi, M. (2022). Identifying women’s needs to adjust to postpartum changes: a qualitative study in Iran. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 22(1), 1–10.

Azale, T., Fekadu, A., & Hanlon, C. (2016). Treatment gap and help-seeking for postpartum depression in a rural African setting. BMC Psychiatry, 16(1), 1–10.

Balaran, K., & Raman, M. (2021). Postpartum Blues - StatPearls - NCBI Bookshelf. StatPearls. Retrieved from

Basu, K., Sinha, R., Ong, A., & Basu, T. (2020). Artificial Intelligence: How is It Changing Medical Sciences and Its Future? Indian Journal of Dermatology, 65(5), 365.

BBC news. (2021). Kesehatan mental: Depresi perinatal, pembunuh senyap yang mengintai keselamatan jiwa ibu dan anaknya. Kesehatan Mental: Depresi Perinatal, Pembunuh Senyap Yang Mengintai Keselamatan Jiwa Ibu Dan Anaknya. Retrieved from

Brummelte, S., & Galea, L. A. M. (2016). Postpartum depression: Etiology, treatment and consequences for maternal care. Hormones and Behavior, 77, 153–166.

Chan, K. L., Leung, W. C., Tiwari, A., Or, K. L., & Ip, P. (2019). Using smartphone-based psychoeducation to reduce postnatal depression among first-time mothers: Randomized controlled trial. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 7(5).

Chan, S. W. C., Levy, V., Chung, T. K. H., & Lee, D. (2002). A qualitative study of the experiences of a group of Hong Kong Chinese women diagnosed with postnatal depression. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 39(6), 571–579.

Corbin, J., & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Corrigan, C. P., Kwasky, A. N., & Groh, C. J. (2015). Social Support, Postpartum Depression, and Professional Assistance: A Survey of Mothers in the Midwestern United States. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 24(1), 48.

Cox, J. L., Holden, J. M., & Sagovsky, R. (1987). Detection of postnatal depression. Development of the 10-item Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The British Journal of Psychiatry : The Journal of Mental Science, 150(JUNE), 782–786.

Dagher, R. K., Pérez-Stable, E. J., & James, R. S. (2021). Socioeconomic and racial/ethnic disparities in postpartum consultation for mental health concerns among US mothers. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 24(5), 781–791.

Dalfen, A. (2008). When Baby Brings the Blues: Solutions for Postpartum Depression. HarperCollins.

Engqvist, I., & Nilsson, K. (2011). Men’s experience of their partners’ postpartum psychiatric disorders: Narratives from the internet. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 8(3), 137–146.

Fatmawati, D. (2015). Faktor Risiko Yang Berpengaruh Terhadap Kejadian Postpartum Blues. Jurnal EduHealth, 5(2), 82–93.

Filaili, N. E. (2020). GAMBARAN RESIKO DEPRESI POSTPARTUM ADA IBU USIA REMAJA. Jurnal Kesehatan Bakti Tunas Husada, 20(2), 269–278.

Firth, J., Torous, J., Nicholas, J., Carney, R., Pratap, A., Rosenbaum, S., & Sarris, J. (2017). The efficacy of smartphone-based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. World Psychiatry, 16(3), 287–298.

Firth, J., Torous, J., Nicholas, J., Carney, R., Rosenbaum, S., & Sarris, J. (2017). Can smartphone mental health interventions reduce symptoms of anxiety? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of Affective Disorders, 218, 15–22.

Gulshan, V., Peng, L., Coram, M., Stumpe, M. C., Wu, D., Narayanaswamy, A., … Webster, D. R. (2016). Development and validation of a deep learning algorithm for detection of diabetic retinopathy in retinal fundus photographs. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 316(22), 2402–2410.

Güneş, E. D., Yaman, H., Çekyay, B., & Verter, V. (2014). Matching patient and physician preferences in designing a primary care facility network. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 65(4), 483–496.

Howard, L. M., Molyneaux, E., Dennis, C. L., Rochat, T., Stein, A., & Milgrom, J. (2014). Non-psychotic mental disorders in the perinatal period. Lancet (London, England), 384(9956), 1775–1788.

Johansson, M., Benderix, Y., & Svensson, I. (2020). Mothers’ and fathers’ lived experiences of postpartum depression and parental stress after childbirth: a qualitative study. International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-Being, 15(1).

Kumalasari, I., & Hendawati, H. (2019). Faktor Risiko Kejadian Postpartum Blues Di Kota Palembang. JPP (Jurnal Kesehatan Poltekkes Palembang), 14(2), 91–95.

Kusuma, R. (2019). Karakteristik Ibu Yangmengalami Depresi Postpartum. Jurnal Ilmiah Universitas Batanghari Jambi, 19(1), 99–103.

Marwiyah, N., Suwardiman, D., Mutia, H. K., Alkarimah, N. A., Rahayu, R., Nuraeni, N., & Uzzakiyyah, I. (2022). Faktor Determinan yang Mempengaruhi terjadinya Postpartum Blues pada Ibu Nifas. Faletehan Health Journal, 9(01), 89–99.

McKinney, E. S., James, S. R., Murray, S. S., Nelson, K., & Ashwill, J. (2021). Maternal-Child Nursing. Elsevier Health Sciences. Retrieved from

Ministry of Health Republic Indonesia. (2020). Profil kesehatan Indonesia 2019. Jakarta.

Novinaldi, N., Edwardi, F., Gunawan, I., & Sarli, D. (2020). EPDSAp: Aplikasi Skrining Baby Blues Berbasis Android dengan Uji Sensitivitas dan Spesifisitas. Jurnal RESTI (Rekayasa Sistem Dan Teknologi Informasi), 4(6), 1135–1141.

O’Connor, E., Rossom, R. C., Henninger, M., Groom, H. C., & Burda, B. U. (2016). Primary care screening for and treatment of depression in pregnant and postpartumwomen evidence report and systematic review for the US preventive services task force. JAMA - Journal of the American Medical Association, 315(4), 388–406.

Oktaputrining, D., C., S., & Suroso, S. (2018). Post Partum Blues: Pentingnya Dukungan Sosial Dan Kepuasan Pernikahan Pada Ibu Primipara. Psikodimensia, 16(2), 151.

Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2012). Nursing Research: Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Purwati, P., & Noviyana, A. (2020). Faktor- Faktor yang Menyebabkan Kejadian Postpartum Blues. Infokes: Jurnal Ilmiah Rekam Medis Dan Informatika Kesehatan, 10(2), 1–4.

Putriarsih, R., Budihastuti, U. R., & Murti, B. (2017). Prevalence and Determinants of Postpartum Depression in Sukoharjo District, Central Java. Journal of Maternal and Child Health, 03(01), 395–408.

Rhayem, A., Mhiri, M. B. A., Drira, K., Tazi, S., & Gargouri, F. (2021). A semantic-enabled and context-aware monitoring system for the internet of medical things. Expert Systems, 38(2).

Salat, S. Y. S., & Suprayitno, E. (2022). Relationship Between Age , Parity Status With The Incidence Of Postpartum. Healthy MU Journal, 6(1), 20–23.

Salleh, N. H. M., Nor, H. A. M., & Mokhtar, D. M. M. (2022). Coping Strategies and Help Seeking Behavior among Women with Symptoms Of Postpartum Depression in Selangor. Malaysian Journal of Medicine and Health Sciences, 18(2), 114–122.

Solama, W., & Handayani, S. (2022). Faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan tingkat kecemasan ibu postpartum. Jurnal ’Aisyiyah Medika, 7(1).

Sun, M., Tang, S., Chen, J., Li, Y., Bai, W., Plummer, V., … Cross, W. M. (2019). A study protocol of mobile phone app-based cognitive behaviour training for the prevention of postpartum depression among high-risk mothers. BMC Public Health, 19(1), 1–7.

Tang, J. J., Malladi, I., Covington, M. T., Ng, E., Dixit, S., Shankar, S., & Kachnowski, S. (2022). Consumer acceptance of using a digital technology to manage postpartum depression. Frontiers in Global Women’s Health, 3(2).

Yuniwati, C., Fithriany, F., & Fahriany, C. (2016). Usia ibu saat persalinan dan dukungan sosial dengan kejadian baby blues syndrome pada ibu post partum di rumah sakit ibu dan anak Kota Banda Aceh. Jurnal Ilmiah PANNMED (Pharmacist, Analyst, Nurse, Nutrition, Midwivery, Environment, Dentist), 10(3), 305–308.