Cholesterol, Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin Profiles of Urban Adolescents

Main Article Content

Yuyun Setyorini
Rendi Editya Darmawan
Yopi Harwinanda Ardesa
RR Sri Arini Winarti Rinawati
Rini Wuri Astuti


Background: Prevention of heart and cardiovascular disease must be carried out as early as possible with routine biochemical examinations. Aim of this study is to describe the profile of Cholesterol, Blood Glucose and Hemogobin in urban adolescents.

 Methods: This research method uses a descriptive design with a cross sectional approach. The sample population in this study was 63 nursing students at the Surakarta Health Polytechnic. The study was conducted in August 2023 and the sample was selected randomly. Data were analyzed descriptively.

 Results: The average cholesterol level was 197mg/dl, the average blood sugar level was 91.1 mg/dl and the average hemoglobin was 13.2 g/dl.

 Conclusion:  The incidence of hypercholesterolemia was high in respondents. This condition is possible due to insufficient consumption of vegetables and lack of physical activity resulting in high cholesterol levels. These specific findings can help create policies to develop more strategic evidence-based interventions, through grouping risk factors in controlling the risk of non-communicable diseases in adolescents.

Article Details

How to Cite
Setyorini, Y., Darmawan, R. E., Ardesa, Y. H., Rinawati, R. S. A. W., & Astuti, R. W. (2023). Cholesterol, Blood Glucose and Hemoglobin Profiles of Urban Adolescents. (JKG) Jurnal Keperawatan Global, 8(2), 117–125.


THERE IS. (2018). 2. Classification and Diagnosis of Diabetes: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes—2018. Diabetes Care , 41 (Supplement_1), S13–S27.

Afshin, A., Sur, PJ, Fay, KA, Cornaby, L., Ferrara, G., Salama, JS, Mullany, EC, Abate, KH, Abbafati, C., Abebe, Z., Afarideh, M., Aggarwal, A., Agrawal, S., Akinyemiju, T., Alahdab, F., Bacha, U., Bachman, V.F., Badali, H., Badawi, A., … Murray, C.J.L. (2019). Health effects of dietary risks in 195 countries, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet (London, England) , 393 (10184), 1958–1972.

Arifin, H., Chou, KR, Ibrahim, K., Fitri, SUR, Pradipta, RO, Rias, YA, Sitorus, N., Wiratama, BS, Setiawan, A., Setyowati, S., Kuswanto, H., Mediarti, D., Rosnani, R., Sulistini, R., & Pahria, T. (2022). Analysis of Modifiable, Non-Modifiable, and Physiological Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases in Indonesia: Evidence from the 2018 Indonesian Basic Health Research. Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare , 15 , 2203.

Balsarkar, G. (2022). Non-Communicable Diseases: Agenda for Today's Gynecologist in India. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology of India , 72 (6), 467.

Billett, H. H. (1990). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit. Anesthesiology , 28 (4), 763–763.

Biswas, T., Townsend, N., Huda, MM, Maravilla, J., Begum, T., Pervin, S., Ghosh, A., Mahumud, RA, Islam, S., Anwar, N., Rifhat, R., Munir, K., Gupta, R. Das, Renzaho, AMN, Khusun, H., Wiradnyani, LAA, Radel, T., Baxter, J., Rawal, LB, … Mamun, A. (2022). Prevalence of multiple non-communicable diseases risk factors among adolescents in 140 countries: A population-based study. EClinicalMedicine , 52 .

Budreviciute, A., Damiati, S., Sabir, D.K., Onder, K., Schuller-Goetzburg, P., Plakys, G., Katileviciute, A., Khoja, S., & Kodzius, R. (2020). Management and Prevention Strategies for Non-communicable Diseases (NCDs) and Their Risk Factors. Frontiers in Public Health , 8 , 574111.

Canfell, O.J., Davidson, K., Woods, L., Sullivan, C., Cocoros, N.M., Klompas, M., Zambarano, B., Eakin, E., Littlewood, R., & Burton-Jones, A. (2022). Precision Public Health for Non-communicable Diseases: An Emerging Strategic Roadmap and Multinational Use Cases. Frontiers in Public Health , 10 , 854525.

CDC. (2022). National Diabetes Statistics Report | Diabetes | CDC . National Diabetes Statistics Report Estimates of Diabetes and Its Burden in the United States.

Cleveland Clinic. (2022). High cholesterol: Causes, symptoms and how it affects the body .

Ding, E.L., & Hu, F.B. (2008). Cancer and cholesterol: understanding the V-shaped association in patients with diabetes. CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal , 179 (5), 403.

Finucane, M.M., Paciorek, C.J., Stevens, G.A., & Ezzati, M. (2015). Semiparametric Bayesian Density Estimation With Disparate Data Sources: A Meta-Analysis of Global Childhood Undernutrition. Journal of the American Statistical Association , 110 (511), 889–901.

Grundy, S.M., Stone, N.J., Bailey, A.L., Beam, C., Birtcher, K.K., Blumenthal, R.S., Braun, L.T., De Ferranti, S., Faiella-Tommasino, J., Forman, D.E., Goldberg, R. , Heidenreich, PA, Hlatky, MA, Jones, D.W., Lloyd-Jones, D., Lopez-Pajares, N., Ndumele, CE, Orringer, CE, Peralta, CA, … Yeboah, J. (2019). 2018 AHA/ACC/AACVPR/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/ADA/AGS/APhA/ASPC/NLA/PCNA Guideline on the Management of Blood Cholesterol: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines . Circulation , 139 (25), E1082–E1143.

Hämäläinen, P., Saltevo, J., Kautiainen, H., Mäntyselkä, P., & Vanhala, M. (2018). Hemoglobin level and lipoprotein particle size. Lipids in Health and Disease , 17 (1).

Indonesian Ministry of Health. (2018). Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Anemia in Adolescent Girls and Fertile Women . of the Book on Prevention and Management of Anemia in Rheumatism and WUS.pdf

Indonesian Ministry of Health. (2021). Healthy Young Women Free from Anemia during the Covid-19 Pandemic . Ministry of Health.

Lee, G., Choi, S., Kim, K., Yun, J.M., Son, J.S., Jeong, S.M., Kim, S.M., & Park, S.M. (2018). Association of hemoglobin concentration and its changes with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Journal of the American Heart Association , 7 (3).

Majić, A., Arsenović, D., & Čvokić, D.D. (2023). Behavioral and Metabolic Risk Factors for Noncommunicable Diseases among Population in the Republic of Srpska (Bosnia and Herzegovina). Healthcare (Switzerland) , 11 (4), 483.

Margaret, C. (2020). QuickStats: Prevalence of High Total Cholesterol Among Adults Aged ≥20 Years, by Age Group and Sex — National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2015–2018. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , 69 (22), 1–1.

Nasrul, NW (2022). Directorate General of Health Services . Indonesian Ministry of Health.

Nilsen, AKO, Anderssen, S.A., Johannessen, K., Aadland, K.N., Ylvisaaker, E., Loftesnes, J.M., & Aadland, E. (2020). Bi-directional prospective associations between objectively measured physical activity and fundamental motor skills in children: a two-year follow-up. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 17 (1).

PAHO. (2021). Noncommunicable Diseases and Mental Health - PAHO/WHO | Pan American Health Organization .

Pengpid, S., & Peltzer, K. (2019). Behavioral Risk Factors Of Non-Communicable Diseases Among A Nationally Representative Sample Of School-Going Adolescents In Indonesia. International Journal of General Medicine , 12 , 387.

Ramesh, S., & Kosalram, K. (2023). The burden of non-communicable diseases: A scoping review focusing on the context of India. Journal of Education and Health Promotion , 12 (1), 41.

Sharma, B., Kim, H.Y., & Nam, E. W. (2018). Effects of School-based Health Promotion Intervention on Health Behaviors among School Adolescents in North Lima and Callao, Peru. Journal of Lifestyle Medicine , 8 (2), 60–71.

Sutadarma, IWG (2022). Directorate General of Health Services . Indonesian Ministry of Health.

Tremblay, M.S., Carson, V., Chaput, J.P., Connor Gorber, S., Dinh, T., Duggan, M., Faulkner, G., Gray, C.E., Grube, R., Janson, K., Janssen, I., Katzmarzyk, PT, Kho, ME, Latimer-Cheung, AE, LeBlanc, C., Okely, AD, Olds, T., Pate, R.R., Phillips, A., … Zehr, L. (2016). Canadian 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Children and Youth: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism = Physiologie Appliquee, Nutrition et Metabolisme , 41 (6 Suppl 3), S311–S327.

Victora, C.G., Adair, L., Fall, C., Hallal, P.C., Martorell, R., Richter, L., & Sachdev, H.S. (2008). Maternal and child undernutrition: consequences for adult health and human capital. Lancet (London, England) , 371 (9609), 340–357.

Wang, H., Wang, C., Xuan, X., Xie, Z., Qiu, Y., Qin, H., & Xiaoning, Z. (2023). Association between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and type 2 diabetes risk in Japanese. Scientific Reports 2023 13:1 , 13 (1), 1–10.

WHO. (2021). Non-communicable diseases . Handbook of Refugee Health: For Healthcare Professionals and Humanitarians Providing Care to Forced Migrants.

Yaya, S., Ekholuetale, M., & Bishwajit, G. (2018). Differentials in prevalence and correlates of metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases among women in sub-Saharan Africa: evidence from 33 countries. BMC Public Health , 18 (1).